The fact that there is a section in this tutorial about citations should come as no surprise to anyone. For most people, the need to "cite your sources" has been drummed into them for many years.
But why? Why exactly is it so important?
Really, it all comes down to acknowledging the work that someone else did. People go to a lot of time and effort (A LOT!) when they publish a book or an article. It can take years of research and writing and editing before something gets published. It's only fair that if you use the work that they did, that you acknowledge that they did it.
You wouldn't want someone else taking credit for work that you did, would you?
So that's the point behind citing your sources—to acknowledge the time and effort that someone else spent researching and writing about the topic (not to mention avoiding being in violation of the University's Academic Honesty Policy), and to let other people know how to find that work (and yes, professors really do track down the sources you cite.)
No matter what type of source you are using, you need to keep track of the following things for a citation:
For traditional printed materials like books and journal articles, this information is pretty easy to find (even if you're accessing them electronically, like through a database). For websites, finding this information can be a little trickier but that list above should look pretty familiar. It's nearly the same list of things that you need to look for when you are evaluating that website.
Different academic disciplines have different ways of formatting citations. English/literature use a style called MLA. Psychology (and most of the social sciences) use one called APA. History uses one called Chicago-Turabian. Medical fields, business, and engineering all have their own styles as well.
They're all just slightly different ways of presenting the same information. Make sure to ask your professor what citation style you should use if your assignment sheet or syllabus doesn't say.
In this tutorial, we will be showing examples of MLA and APA citation styles, as those are the two most commonly used.
The basic format for book citations is as follows:
Last name, first name. Title of book. City of publication: Publisher, Publication Date.
Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Penguin, 1987.
Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
As you can see, all the information we talked about above is there in both styles. It's just in different order, with different punctuation rules.
Citing Journal Articles:
Author (s). "Title of article." Title of journal, volume, issue, year, pages.
Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., and Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. doi:http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy.
Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.
Or (electronic article):
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283.
One of the neat things about finding journal articles in the databases is that many of them will generate citations for you. However, these citations aren't always 100 percent correct, so you need to check them. But they will certainly get you a large part of the way there!
Different databases have the "Cite" option located in different places, and not all the databases even have it.
If you are in an EBSCO database (it'll say so in the upper left corner of the page), you can generate a citation by:
If you are in a ProQuest Database, the process is similar:
Confusing, right? Only a little. Learning how to do citations takes a little bit of time, but fortunately there are some really good websites out there that show you how to format them.
Our particular favorites are:
Online Writing Lab (OWL) from Purdue University—an extensive site for both MLA and APA citation styles. They provide examples of almost any kind of source you might need to cite.
Chicago Manual of Style from Purdue OWL—Purdue University also has an extensive style guide for the Chicago Manual.
Now go forth and cite ALL your sources. And remember, it's hard to cite too much, and your professors would rather see too many citations than not enough. When in doubt, cite it.